The Orto Sole cooperative farm in Fiumicino and Torrimpietra, Italy, is located in a protected historical site made of sandy soils, which requires the optimization of the use of water resources in order to preserve soil structure and address the pitfall of weeds, pests and pathogens. The firm also adopts climate adaptation techniques, such as wastewater management and ecological mulching, designed to raise the number of pollinators and vulnerable bird species. Photo FAO/Alessandra Benedetti
“Biological diversity is vital for human health and well-being. I urge all — governments, businesses and civil society — to take urgent action to protect and sustainably manage the fragile and vital web of life on our one and only planet.” — UN Secretary-General António Guterres
The Value of Biodiversity
While there is a growing recognition that biological diversity is a global asset of tremendous value to present and future generations, the number of species is being significantly reduced by certain human activities.
The Convention on Biological Diversity is the international legal instrument for “the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources” that has been ratified by 196 nations.
Given the importance of public education and awareness for the implementation of the Convention, the General Assembly proclaimed 22 May, the date of the adoption of its text, as the International Day for Biological Diversity by its resolution 55/201 of 20 December 2000.
2019 Theme: Our Biodiversity, Our Food, Our Health
Nowadays, we have access to a greater variety of food than your parents or your grandparents once did. But even as the offerings become more diverse, the global diet as a whole – what people actually eat – is becoming more homogenized, and this is a dangerous thing.
This year’s celebrations of the International Day for Biological Diversity focus on biodiversity as the foundation for our food and health and a key catalyst to transforming food systems and improving human health.
The theme aims to leverage knowledge and spread awareness of the dependency of our food systems, nutrition, and health on biodiversity and healthy ecosystems. The theme also celebrates the diversity provided by our natural systems for human existence and well-being on Earth, while contributing to other Sustainable Development Goals, including climate change mitigation and adaptation, ecosystems restoration, cleaner water and zero hunger, among others.
In the last 100 years, more than 90 percent of crop varieties have disappeared from farmers’ fields. Half of the breeds of many domestic animals have been lost, and all of the world’s 17 main fishing grounds are now being fished at or above their sustainable limits. Locally-varied food production systems are under threat, including related indigenous, traditional and local knowledge. With this decline, agrobiodiversity is disappearing, and also essential knowledge of traditional medicine and local foods. The loss of diverse diets is directly linked to diseases or health risk factors, such as diabetes, obesity and malnutrition, and has a direct impact on the availability of traditional medicines.
Decisions from the 14th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD COP 14), along with reports on biodiversity and health, provide recommendations.
Participate in the celebrations! You can share your activities on the special pages of the Convention’s website, dedicated to these celebrations worldwide.
Biodiversity and the Sustainable Development Goals
The objectives of halting biodiversity loss and promoting the sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems are included in Sustainable Development Goal 15.
Species Extinction Rates ‘Accelerating’
A hard-hitting report into the impact of humans on nature shows that nearly one million species risk becoming extinct within decades, while current efforts to conserve the earth’s resources will likely fail without radical action. The historic report features the work of 400 experts from at least 50 countries, coordinated by the Bonn-based Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES).